In vitro production of germline chimeras and avian cloning may utilise the transfer of avian embryos from their original eggshell to a surrogate eggshell for culture during incubation. Such embryo transfer is valuable for avian cloning as the only alternative would be to transfer the cloned avian embryos into the infundibulum of recipient birds. Given the advances in paleogenomics, synthetic biology, and gene editing, a similar approach might be used to generate extinct species, i.e. de-extinction. One objective of the present research was to examine if ratite eggs could be manipulated via windowing and sham injection, similar to that which could allow for avian genome manipulation and subsequent development. The efficiency of interspecific avian embryo transfer using Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) donor eggs and Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) recipient eggshells was also investigated. Egg windowing and embryo transfer techniques utilised in the present research were adapted from those found in the scientific literature. Presumed fertile eggs from Rhode Island Red (n = 40), Silkie (n = 2), and White Leghorn Chickens (n = 18), Turkey (n = 48), Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) (n = 79), and Ostrich (Struthio camelus) (n = 89) were used in this research. Of the 41 Chicken eggs used for transfers into recipient Turkey eggshells, only one (2.4%) produced a chick. Of 31 windowed Emu eggs, one embryo survived for 25 d but no chicks were produced. Of 36 windowed Ostrich eggs, one embryo survived and hatched. The efficiency of the windowing and embryo transfers to produce chicks was low and further refinements are needed. Importantly, the results herein establish that manipulating ratite embryos is possible.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) has the ability to inform the evolutionary history of both extant and extinct taxa; however, the use of aDNA in the study of avian evolution is lacking in comparison to other vertebrates, despite birds being one of the most species-rich vertebrate classes. Here, we review the field of “avian ancient DNA” by summarising the past three decades of literature on this topic. Most studies over this time have used avian aDNA to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and clarify taxonomy based on the sequencing of a few mitochondrial loci, but recent studies are moving toward using a comparative genomics approach to address developmental and functional questions.
New Zealand will succeed in its ambition to be predator free by 2050 because the alternative is unthinkable to New Zealanders.
Unless we grasp the opportunity to fight back against these insidious invaders there will be no kiwi left by 2050. No kea, no kaka or kokako. We’ll be lucky to have a few fantails in the garden.
The decline of our native birds, insects and reptiles has been so steep, and the increase in predator populations so marked, that this campaign really is our last chance to save from extinction the things we treasure, and which make New Zealand special and different.
Here’s the sobering truth: Around half the species on Earth today could disappear by middle of the century, unless we humans can tackle climate change and slow our population growth.
That’s a view shared by leading biologists and ecologists, many of whom are gathering in the Vatican this week for a wonky but optimistic-sounding conference: “How To Save the Natural World on Which We Depend.”
Early on an unusually blustery day in June, Kevin Esvelt climbed aboard a ferry at Woods Hole, bound for Nantucket Island. Esvelt, an assistant professor of biological engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was on his way to present to local health officials a plan for ridding the island of one of its most persistent problems: Lyme disease. He had been up for much of the night working on his slides, and the fatigue showed. He had misaligned the buttons on his gray pin-striped shirt, and the rings around his deep-blue eyes made him look like a sandy-haired raccoon.
Esvelt, who is thirty-four, directs the “sculpting evolution” group at M.I.T., where he and his colleagues are attempting to design molecular tools capable of fundamentally altering the natural world. If the residents of Nantucket agree, Esvelt intends to use those tools to rewrite the DNA of white-footed mice to make them immune to the bacteria that cause Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. He and his team would breed the mice in the laboratory and then, as an initial experiment, release them on an uninhabited island. If the number of infected ticks begins to plummet, he would seek permission to repeat the process on Nantucket and on nearby Martha’s Vineyard.