The Genetic Rescue Foundation Blog

What a moa wants

As the dust has settled on another New Zealand election and policy promises turn into policy implementation, it seemed worthwhile to reflect on what a fully restored ecosystem would look like in 21st century Aotearoa/NZ and how this might happen.  What you might find surprising is how many of the proposals would actually have real merit if applied the right way.  Let’s start with the matter of what I mean by a “fully restored ecosystem”.  

By far the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community is that the New Zealand archipelago had a fully functioning and healthy ecosystem, until around 700 years ago when the first humans set up camp.  Almost all of the land was fully forested including the dry Eastern areas such as Hawke’s Bay, Marlborough and Canterbury.  Our Polynesian forebears did what humans do – they hunted and modified the landscape with fire. Much like our European ancestors later, these first settlers undoubtedly had no grasp on the magnitude of the change they were initiating.  Such was the scale of the fires that when historic records began in the early 19th century, many of the once forested areas were so distant from seed sources that they simply grew tussock grass and the forests never recovered.  So, what about the ecosystem in the wet areas?  Evidence suggests that many of these too were burned at various points but experienced far less devastating fires.  Nonetheless, the ecosystem was subjected to new predation by rats, dogs and humans.  

But here’s the rub.  A large proportion of the pre-European extinctions were from these Eastern areas where only tiny pockets of dryland forest still remain and many of the affected bird species were large and required large ranges.  

What is immediately obvious when you step into a remnant dryland forest is how dramatically different it is from the bush that most of us are familiar with.  There is a plethora of endangered plants, many twiggy and divaricating, that are absent elsewhere. Many of these plants have presented a challenge to restoration efforts, being slow to recolonise surrounding land.  Exactly what role moa and other extinct species played in this ecosystem is really anyone’s guess but undoubtedly it will have been profound.  


In pre-human times, Molesworth Station was forested and supported several species of moa.

To create a picture, imagine an expanse of land like inland Marlborough or Canterbury with relatively open, tall forest of totara, matai, kanuka and hoheria.  Without high rainfall, the understory would be made up of dense twiggy shrubs such as have been found in moa crop remains.  Growth rates would have been very slow so when a large tree died, the open area would have persisted for a relatively long time.  Large birds like moa could therefore move easily through forests like this and so too a predator like Haast’s eagle.  

Genetic Rescue Foundation has been a big proponent of restoring Aotearoa/NZ’s pre-human ecosystem with the best that science has to offer.  Along with many other dedicated conservation groups, we recognise that an ecosystem is just that and that the removal of any component part can have devastating effect long term on the entire system.  The challenge with a completely devastated ecosystem is – where do you start?  In my opinion we must start with an idea of where we want to end up.  That calls for something of a “master plan” and unity between the many conservation groups.  We also have to be pragmatic about where we fit into the picture allowing for economic activity, farming etc.  This election, all major parties have expressed a desire to invest in science, a goal of making NZ predator free, planting trees and improving the lot of our endemic species.  As it would happen, all of these points are critical to a long term vision that includes restoration of our extinct species.  

Assuming adequate investment in our research programmes, the international de-extinction community is likely to begin delivering the first revived species within a decade.  Of course, the more rigorous our efforts, the longer this will take.  If this is to ever move beyond small birds suitable for island refuges, this must involve predator eradication on mainland New Zealand as proposed by Predator Free NZ.   Furthermore, we must begin large scale restoration of our Eastern dryland forests.  Large expanses of degraded land such as Molesworth Station would seem natural targets for any such effort.  Yet, another non-profit, Tane’s Tree Trust, has developed significant resources to support indigenous plantation forestry.  Perhaps the billion tree target by the new government could be made up from 100% indigenous species.  Lastly, a restored ecosystem requires us to invest in science and conservation.  There is an opportunity for New Zealand to become the world leader in avian conservation biotechnology, working on contracts from across the world.  And, we can’t be reviving one species while we let another slip into extinction.  Restoration efforts such as the Kakapo and Kiwi Recovery Programmes need adequate resourcing.  We can’t have critical research to support these efforts determined by lottery from an undersized funding pool.

Ultimately, moa need to be part of a restored ecosystem which isn’t missing other species.  So, speaking on behalf of all moa past and future, it’s time to work together on a shared goal for a restored Aotearoa/NZ and the sooner we get to it the better.

The hidden crisis shaping life on earth

The diversity of species on Earth is plummeting, and by 2100, the number of extinctions could be as high as 1,000 – what can we do about it?

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Manipulating the avian egg: applications for embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning

In vitro production of germline chimeras and avian cloning may utilise the transfer of avian embryos from their original eggshell to a surrogate eggshell for culture during incubation. Such embryo transfer is valuable for avian cloning as the only alternative would be to transfer the cloned avian embryos into the infundibulum of recipient birds. Given the advances in paleogenomics, synthetic biology, and gene editing, a similar approach might be used to generate extinct species, i.e. de-extinction. One objective of the present research was to examine if ratite eggs could be manipulated via windowing and sham injection, similar to that which could allow for avian genome manipulation and subsequent development. The efficiency of interspecific avian embryo transfer using Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) donor eggs and Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) recipient eggshells was also investigated. Egg windowing and embryo transfer techniques utilised in the present research were adapted from those found in the scientific literature. Presumed fertile eggs from Rhode Island Red (n = 40), Silkie (n = 2), and White Leghorn Chickens (n = 18), Turkey (n = 48), Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) (n = 79), and Ostrich (Struthio camelus) (n = 89) were used in this research. Of the 41 Chicken eggs used for transfers into recipient Turkey eggshells, only one (2.4%) produced a chick. Of 31 windowed Emu eggs, one embryo survived for 25 d but no chicks were produced. Of 36 windowed Ostrich eggs, one embryo survived and hatched. The efficiency of the windowing and embryo transfers to produce chicks was low and further refinements are needed. Importantly, the results herein establish that manipulating ratite embryos is possible.

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In Breakthrough, Scientists Edit a Dangerous Mutation From Genes in Human Embryos

Scientists for the first time have successfully edited genes in human embryos to repair a common and serious disease-causing mutation, producing apparently healthy embryos, according to a study published on Wednesday.

The research marks a major milestone and, while a long way from clinical use, it raises the prospect that gene editing may one day protect babies from a variety of hereditary conditions.

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Time to Spread Your Wings: A Review of the Avian Ancient DNA Field

Ancient DNA (aDNA) has the ability to inform the evolutionary history of both extant and extinct taxa; however, the use of aDNA in the study of avian evolution is lacking in comparison to other vertebrates, despite birds being one of the most species-rich vertebrate classes. Here, we review the field of “avian ancient DNA” by summarising the past three decades of literature on this topic. Most studies over this time have used avian aDNA to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and clarify taxonomy based on the sequencing of a few mitochondrial loci, but recent studies are moving toward using a comparative genomics approach to address developmental and functional questions.

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Resistance to CRISPR gene drives may arise easily

A genetic-engineering tool designed to spread through a population like wildfire — eradicating disease and even whole invasive species — might be more easily thwarted than thought.

Resistance to the tools, called CRISPR gene drives, arose at high rates in experiments with Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, researchers at Cornell University report July 20 in PLOS GeneticsRates of resistance varied among strains of fruit flies collected around the world, from a low of about 4 percent in embryos from an Ithaca, N.Y., strain to a high of about 56 percent in Tasmanian fruit fly embryos.

“At these rates, the constructs would not start spreading in the population,” says coauthor Philipp Messer, a population geneticist. “It might require quite a bit more work to get a gene drive that works at all.”

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New Limits to Functional Portion of Human Genome Reported

An evolutionary biologist at the University of Houston has published new calculations that indicate no more than 25 percent of the human genome is functional. That is in stark contrast to suggestions by scientists with the ENCODE project that as much as 80 percent of the genome is functional.

In work published online in Genome Biology and Evolution, Dan Graur reports the functional portion of the human genome probably falls between 10 percent and 15 percent, with an upper limit of 25 percent. The rest is so-called junk DNA, or useless but harmless DNA.

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Google’s life sciences unit is releasing 20 million bacteria-infected mosquitoes in Fresno

Verily, the life science’s arm of Google’s parent company Alphabet, has hatched a plan to release about 20 million lab-made, bacteria-infected mosquitoes upon Fresno, California — and that’s a good thing!

You see, the Zika-carrying Aedes aegypti mosquito is prevalent in the area. Earlier this year, a woman contracted the first confirmed case of Zika in Fresno through sexual contact with a partner who had been traveling. Now there’s the fear of most likely inevitable mosquito-meets-patient if we don’t do something about it. Verily’s plan, called the Debug Project, hopes to now wipe out this potential Zika-carrying mosquito population to prevent further infections.

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Era of ‘Biological Annihilation’ Is Underway, Scientists Warn

From the common barn swallow to the exotic giraffe, thousands of animal species are in precipitous decline, a sign that an irreversible era of mass extinction is underway, new research finds.

The study, published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, calls the current decline in animal populations a “global epidemic” and part of the “ongoing sixth mass extinction” caused in large measure by human destruction of animal habitats. The previous five extinctions were caused by natural phenomena.

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George Church: CRISPR

Science Exchange enables completion of the Kakapo 125 Project


To date, The Genetic Rescue Foundation’s Kakapo 125 Project has successfully sequenced 80 kākāpō. This work was made possible by collaborating with DNA sequencing service providers on the Science Exchange network. In addition to enabling The Genetic Rescue Foundation to easily access the world’s best service providers we’re thrilled to announce that Science Exchange will be funding the remainder of the project in order to bring it to completion!

Detailed genetic data for every individual in an entire species is a world first and represents a genomics-focused paradigm shift in modern conservation efforts. The possible discoveries that will come from this rich dataset are limitless. Scientists’ immediate efforts will be focused on finding genetic links to dwarfism, infertility and other diseases and conditions hampering kākāpō population recovery.

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Predator-free target our last chance to save the kiwi

New Zealand will succeed in its ambition to be predator free by 2050 because the alternative is unthinkable to New Zealanders.

Unless we grasp the opportunity to fight back against these insidious invaders there will be no kiwi left by 2050. No kea, no kaka or kokako. We’ll be lucky to have a few fantails in the garden.

The decline of our native birds, insects and reptiles has been so steep, and the increase in predator populations so marked, that this campaign really is our last chance to save from extinction the things we treasure, and which make New Zealand special and different.

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